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The Seven Feasts of the Bible

Updated: May 5, 2021

Overview

Read the Scripture: "And the LORD said to Moses, 'Speak to the children of Israel, saying, "The feast of the LORD, which you shall proclaim as a feast of holy assemblies. Six days shall work be done, and the seventh day shall be a holy sabbath, when there shall be a holy assembly; and you shall do no work; it is a sabbath to be kept to the LORD in all your dwelling places. The feasts of the LORD, which you shall proclaim as holy assemblies on the day, are these.'" (Lev. 23:1-4)

The law of the Israelites was divided into "moral law" and "ceremonial law". The "five sacrifices" and the "seven feasts" were the ceremonial laws. The Israelites were to keep the law because it was their "national law". They were in the age of the law. We in the New Testament, especially after the coming of the Holy Spirit, are in the age of grace, and we do not need to keep the law, but the law is an extremely valuable lesson and foretaste for us. We do not need to keep the law itself, especially the ceremonial law: "Therefore let no one judge you, neither in food, nor in the feasts, nor in the months, nor in the sabbaths. These are the shadow of things to come, but the form is Christ." (Col. 2:16-17)

Leviticus 23 is an account of "the feasts of the Lord", and verses 1-4 are introductory.



I. Leviticus

1. The Five Books of Moses

(1) Genesis.

On God's creation of all things and man.

(2) Exodus.

On the salvation of God.

(3) Leviticus.

On the holy life to be lived after salvation.

(4) Numbers.

On the life in the wilderness.

(5) Deuteronomy.

A restatement of the law in preparation for the crossing of the Jordan into Canaan.

The Israelites had no "feast of the Lord" in Egypt, no holy meetings or joyful times. They only worshipped idols and were slaves, which prefigured the situation before salvation.

2. The Pentateuch in the synagogue

The Jews divided the Pentateuch into 54 sections in the synagogue, with Leviticus taking up 10 major sections. When Jesus was on earth, their Pentateuch was still divided in this way.

3. The Book of Leviticus

It is not appropriate to call it Leviticus, because it is not all about the priests, nor is it all about the sacrifices.

Leviticus could have been divided into many parts, but it is mainly divided into 3 major sections: "The Five Sacrifices" (chapters 1-7), the Day of Atonement (chapter 16, the central chapter), and "The Feast of the Lord" (chapter 23).

Feast Days

These are biblical feast days, not the feasts or festivals of our nations.

1. The word "feast" and "period" (including the meaning of "appointment to meet")

The original word contains the meaning of "feast" and "period". The English Bible only translates the word "feasts", but the Chinese Bible translates it well. The word "feast" is a festival, and "period" is a time or season. The Passover, Feast of Unleavened Bread, Pentecost (7/7) and Feast of Tabernacles are "feasts", while the others are "periods". 2.

2. "Proclaim the sacred assembly"

This means a meeting (Lev 23:7-8, 21, 24, 27, 35-37). The feast ordained by the LORD is a "holy meeting" to "gather His people together".

(1) The blowing of the silver trumpet (Num. 10:1-10): To gather the people together for a meeting.

(2) Sacrifice: Sacrifices were offered in all sections. The sacrifices indicate the blood that has the power to save; the feast offerings indicate the food that sustains life.

(3) Counting the grace of God during the feast days.

3. The seven feasts

Some people divide the feasts into five: they call the first three together the "Feast of Unleavened Bread"; the five feasts plus the Sabbatical Year and the Jubilee Year (chapter 25) make seven. But the Sabbatical and Jubilee years are "annual divisions".

(1) There should be 7 feasts.

① Passover (23:5).

Christ is our Passover lamb (Ex. 12).

② Feast of Unleavened Bread (vv. 6-8).

Prefigures Christ as sinless (1 Cor. 5:7-8).

③ The Feast of the Firstfruits (vv. 9-14).

Prefiguring the resurrection of Christ (1 Cor. 15:20, 23).

④ Pentecost (vv. 15-22).

A foreshadowing of the coming of the Holy Spirit and the coming out of the church (Acts 2).

⑤ The Feast of the Blowing of the Trumpets (vv. 23-25).

A foreshadowing of Christ's return (1 Thess. 4:16-17). There is a trumpet that recalls Israel (Mt 24:31).

⑥ Day of Atonement (Lev 23:26-32).

A foreshadowing of Israel's repentance and salvation during the seven-year tribulation (Jas 12:10-13:1, Ro 11:26).

(7) Feast of Tabernacles (Lev 23:33-44).

A foretaste of the millennial peaceable kingdom (Rev. 20:1-6).

(2) In three categories (Deut. 16:16).

The men of Israel, who were to keep the 3 major feasts each year (Psalm 122-134), sang songs of joy on the way to Jerusalem. They were not to make pilgrimages to God empty-handed (Ex 23:14-17, 34:24).

① Passover (Feast of Unleavened Bread) (Lev 23:4-14).

Including the first 3 feasts, which were past, in the first month of Israel.

② Pentecost (Lev. 23:15-22).

In the month of March in Israel. This is a pre-expression of the present church.

③ Feast of Tabernacles (Feast of Collection) (23:23-44).

Including the 3 feasts that prefigure the future, in the seventh month of Israel.

(3) The first 4 feasts follow each other closely, and are followed by 4 months apart. During these 4 months, there was no feast and no sacred meeting in Jerusalem. From Pentecost to the Feast of the Blowing of the Trumpets, there was no voice of the LORD calling His people.

The first 4 feast days refer to the church, and the last 3 refer to earthly Israel.

(4) "The feasts of the Jews" (John 2:13, 5:1, 6:4, 7:2).

The Old Testament called it "the feast of the LORD", but later the Israelites focused only on outward forms, so the joy of the LORD ceased, and in the New Testament it was called "the feast of the Jews".

4. The feasts after the captivity

(1) The feast of Purim (S 9:24-32).

(2) The Feast of the Temple (Jn 10:22): also known as the "Feast of the Renewal of Light".

The Maggribi movement drove out the Greeks (165 B.C.), restored worship, and established the Feast of the Temple.

Sabbath (Lev 23:3)

"Six days shall work be done, and the seventh day shall be a holy Sabbath, when there shall be a holy assembly, and you shall do no work. This is the Sabbath to be kept to the LORD in all your dwelling places." (23:3) This is not a normal Sabbath.

Leviticus 23:1-2 says "the feast of the LORD", verse 3 talks about "the holy Sabbath", and verse 4 "the feast of the LORD" comes up again, which This is a new beginning. These words do not appear again in the subsequent descriptions of the seven feasts, so the Sabbath is independent. Although the Sabbath is mentioned here first, it is not until the end that the Sabbath is fulfilled.

There were Sabbaths before the 7 feasts, which if combined would be 8. But this Sabbath has its own uniqueness, not one of the feasts.

1. Sabbath-based

This seems to be unrelated to the feast days (23:37-38). But the 7 feast days are based on this Sabbath, in order to give the people greater rest.

2. The First Sabbath (Genesis 2:3)

After God's work of creation was completed, God also rested. This Sabbath became the model for later Sabbath observance. Genesis shows the divine Sabbath; the other four books emphasize the Sabbath as the law. The number "7" is the number of perfection. The Israelites first recognized 7 as rest when God sent manna (Ex. 16:5, 22-30). 3.

3. "Holy Sabbath" (Lev 23:3)

The original text reads "the Sabbath of rest". The Sabbath was once a week, but the feast was once a year. It is clear that God considered the Sabbath more sacred than the other feasts, so God put the Sabbath before the seven feasts.

4. "You shall do no work"

The other feasts forbid "laborious work" (i.e., service work, Lev 23:7-8, 21, 25, 35-36), but not the preparation of food (Ex 12:16).

5. "There shall be a holy assembly" (Lev 23:3)

The feast must be kept in the place where Yahweh has appointed His name (Deut. 12:14, 16:6); the Sabbath (except for the called sacred assembly) may be kept in the home.

6. The sacrifices offered on the Sabbath

"On the Sabbath, two ram lambs of one year old, without disabilities, and two tenths of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil, shall be offered as a vegetarian sacrifice, and the same sacrifice shall be offered as a sacrifice. And this is the burnt offering which is offered every Sabbath, and the burnt offering which is always offered, and the sacrificial offering which is offered with it, are outside." (Num. 28:9-10)

7. There were 10 Sabbaths for the Israelites

(1) The weekly ones.

(2) The first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Lev 23:7).

(3) The seventh day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread (verse 8).

(4) Of the Feast of Pentecost (verse 16).

(5) Of the Feast of the Blowing of the Trumpets (verse 24).

(6) Of the Day of Atonement (verse 32).

(7) The first day of the Feast of Tabernacles (verse 35).

(8) Of the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles (verse 36).

(9) Of the Sabbatical year (25:4).

(10) The Jubilee year (25:10-11). 8.

8. Special Sabbaths for each "seventh" day

The seventh day, the seventh month, the seventh year, the seventh year.


The feast days are not for us to keep, but the foreshadowing and lessons of the feast days are very helpful to us. We will discuss each of the 7 feasts below.



 


Chapter 1 Passover

Scripture reading: Exodus 12:1-14, Leviticus 23:5, Deuteronomy 16:6, 1 Corinthians 5:7-8

The "Feast of the LORD", with the Passover as the first and foremost, is called "the Passover of the LORD", which is a matter of salvation.

The first enactment (Exodus 12) was in Egypt, the most important foreshadowing of Exodus; the second enactment (Lev 23:5) was in the wilderness of Sinai, the first of the seven feasts; the third enactment (Deut 16) was in the plains of Moab, which was necessary to be kept three times a year.

I. The Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread

Some people think that the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread are two names for the same feast. Since the two feasts are connected (as in Deut. 16:1-8), they think they are the same feast. It should be said that these are two separate feasts.

1. Passover

This is a family feast: Leviticus 23:5 does not mention the Passover liturgy. The Passover was originally an ancient shepherd's feast, where no priest entered the sanctuary to offer sacrifices, and no altar was used.

2. The Feast of Unleavened Bread

The beginning of this feast enjoyed pilgrimage status and was one of the three annual pilgrimage feasts celebrated in the sanctuary.

3. Passover and Feast of Unleavened Bread

Passover - Christ is the Lamb of atonement for our sins, so that we may be redeemed.

The Feast of Unleavened Bread - Christ is the unleavened bread, so that we may live a holy life.

II. The Tenth Plague (Exodus 11)

The Israelites were working hard in Egypt. God raised up Moses to bring them out of Egypt, but Pharaoh did not allow them to leave. So God performed 10 great miracles (sent 10 plagues) through Moses for about a year. The last plague was the plague of the killing of the firstborn and the killing of the firstborn.

In order to preserve the Israelites, God established the Passover for them.

III. The First Passover (Exodus 12:1-13)

The first Passover had unleavened bread, but it was not a festival of unleavened bread. The Passover was only one day. Exodus 12:1-13 was the Passover, and verses 15-20 were the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which they were to keep later.

1. Time

"It was to be kept until the fourteenth day of the month" (Exodus 12:6): "the month" means "the first month" (verse 2).

The 14th day of the first month at dusk, which was the national day of Israel.

(1) "The first month" (12:2).

The Jewish calendar takes the month of Tanakh as the first month; but the Holy Year begins with the month of Abib in the Exodus (Deut. 16:1): the month of July is changed to the first month (Abib).

"Abib" (Ex. 13:4) means "green ears", which was the name of the Canaanites. Later, when the Jews went into captivity, they adopted the Babylonian calendar and called it "Nisan" (Neh. 2:1, Sm. 3:7), which means "beginning" and "opening".

(2) "Fourteenth" day (Ex. 12:6).

It was held at the time of the full moon.

(3) "Twilight" (12:6).

The original text is "between two twilights", i.e., between 3-6 p.m. today and 3-6 p.m. tomorrow. The Jews in New Testament times slaughtered lambs from 3-6 pm. This was the exact time of Jesus' crucifixion.

(4) "For the beginning of the year" (12:2).

This was the New Year when the calendar was changed. Salvation is the beginning of a new beginning, the beginning of a new life.

2. Location

The first Passover was in Egypt. Egypt was a foreshadowing of the world, showing that the world needed to be saved.

3. Crossing over to Israel

(1) Preparation of the lamb (Exodus 12:3-5).

"On the tenth day of the month": The Passover was on the fourteenth day at dusk, and it seemed premature to prepare the lamb four days in advance, but this was a sign that the life of the Lord Jesus was tested (Lk 11:53-54, Jn 8:46, 18:38).

"Every man shall take a lamb according to his father's house, one for each family" (Ex. 12:3): This is not a random combination, but a "family" unit. If a family could not eat, they had to take one with their neighbor (v.4). The average Jewish family was about 10 people, and they ate one lamb together.

"A male lamb of one year old, without disabilities" (Exodus 12:5): A year old is a year of innocence and purity. The lamb was a prefigurement of Christ (1 Cor. 5:6-7), so it had to be "without handicap".

"You may take either from the sheep or from the goats" (2 Cor. 5): This was the choice of the time. Most people preferred to take sheep, and later only sheep were allowed.

(2) Slaughter of lambs (Exodus 12:6).

All the houses of Israel were to slaughter lambs between dusk. This was a foreshadowing of Jesus' death at 3:00 pm.

(3) Applying the blood (12:7).

The blood was "painted on the doorframes and lintels to the right and left of the houses where the lamb was eaten". The blood was a sign, but it was not applied to the threshold so that it would not be trampled on (Heb. 10:29). Jesus is the door that is marked with blood. We have to enter the gate of blood to have peace within the gate of blood. We do not have peace until we have blood at the door of our hearts. Any Israelite who is not in the room will also be killed. If there is a Gentile in the room, he will also be saved by the blood on the lintel of the door frame.

The painting of the blood is the taking of individual faith, not the taking of the community (Jn 3:36). There is no need to add anything other than the painting of the blood. The blood is for God to see, in order to meet the requirements of His righteousness.

(4) Eating the flesh of the lamb.

"The flesh of the lamb shall be eaten that night, roasted by fire, with unleavened bread and bitter vegetables." (Ex. 12:8) (Exodus 12:8) Note "that night", do not eat it late. The word "eat" means to accept.

(1) "Roasted with fire" (Deut. 16:7): lifted up with a fork and roasted.

"Roasted with fire", but "not a bone shall be broken" (Ex 12:46, Jn 19:36).

"Roasted", as in the fires of hell, makes a man thirsty (Lk 16:24). Jesus was thirsty on the cross (Jn 19:28), but He willingly drank this cup for us (Jn 18:11), meaning that He accepted the fire of hell and was tormented for sinners.

② The flesh of the lamb is fresh: they are only allowed to eat the flesh, but not to drink the blood.

But we are eating the Lord's flesh and drinking His blood (Jn 6:53-55), which shows that Christ is our bread of life.

(3) Eating with unleavened bread and bitter vegetables.

a. Unleavened bread.

Leaven, which is sin. Unleavened bread is the main character of the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Ex. 12:14-20).

b. Bitter greens.

This is a wild vegetable of the desert, and the nomads make a concoction of bitter greens with meat. The Jewish Oral Law says that the bitter greens are mishnah, and the varieties are lettuce, chicory, snake root, mint, and dandelion. This was Israel's experience of serving bitterness (Ex. 1:14).

We should also be grieved by sin.

④ To eat all (Ex. 12:9-10).

"Never eat boiled": The first Passover is not allowed to eat boiled, but later is allowed to eat boiled (in 1 Sam. 2:13).

"Take the head, the legs, and the five organs, and roast them in the fire and eat them": "head", indicating the thought; "legs", indicating the deed; "five organs", indicating the will.

"No little bit left ......": No little bit left in Egypt, do not desecrate the sacrificial meat. We are to receive the whole Christ.

⑤ All eat (Ex 12:47-49).

The Gentiles were not supposed to eat. If they were to eat, they were to be circumcised first (v. 48). The circumcised Gentiles were still Gentiles, but they entered Judaism by faith.

The church should also gather together in one place to receive the Lord's Supper.

(5) The attitude of eating.

"Eat the lamb when you have your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hands, and eat it with all haste ......." (12:11) This is only the first time the Passover lamb was eaten.

① Eat it in the house (v. 46).

Do not bring it outside to eat it, for there is blood at the door of the house.

② "Do not leave any left over until morning" (12:10).

We are to eat it in the night. We should receive the grace of God while we have this day.

(3) "Eat quickly" (12:11).

"Girded at the waist, with shoes on their feet, and with staffs in their hands", as opposed to the usual attitude to the feast. They ate standing up, because they did not know where they were going at that time. We should have the same attitude when we are living in the world. To "hurry and eat" means to be free from the world.

(6) Slaying the firstborn (12:12-13).

This is the 10th plague in Egypt, and the history of the Passover. The Israelites suffered in Egypt, but God saved Israel in remembrance of His covenant with Abraham.

"For that night I will go round the land of Egypt" (verse 12): The Lord came down to go round and kill all the firstborn (both human and livestock) in the land of Egypt. Egypt was deified by animals, and each god was represented by a beast.

And all the firstborn were protected by their gods. Now all the gods that protected them were to be killed. "And shall corrupt all the gods of Egypt" (under 12:12): The LORD God directly corrupted all the gods of Egypt, that they might know that their gods could not protect them.

(7) Preservation (transgression) of Israel.

"As soon as I see this blood, I will cross over to you" (12:13): This is the Passover. "Pass over" pasach, this verb occurs three times: "to become lame" (2 Sam. 4:4), "to jump and limp" (1 Kings 18:26), and "to cross over and preserve" (1 Kings 18:26). The verb "to pass over and save" (Isa. 31:5) is translated as passover, which means "to pass over".

4. The Passover afterwards

This "later" does not only refer to the annual Passover, but also to some special and frequent Passovers after the first Passover.

1. The Second Passover (Num. 9:1-14)

It was an anniversary: "In the first month of the second year after the Israelites came out of the land of Egypt" (v. 1) and "on the fourteenth day" (v. 3). This Passover was held after the dedication and cleansing of the Levites. The first Passover was kept in Egypt, and the second Passover was kept in the "wilderness of Sinai" (verses 1, 5).

This time, the unclean (vv. 6-11) could not keep the Passover: "There were some who were unclean because of the dead bodies, and could not keep the Passover on that day." (v. 7, Lev. 7:19-21) It was to be postponed for a month: "And they shall keep the Passover on the fourteenth day of the second month, at twilight." (9:11)

If the breaking of bread was stopped because of uncleanness, but after dealing with sin, it was to be resumed.

He who does not keep it shall be cut off: "If he who is clean and does not walk in the way excuses himself from keeping the Passover, that man shall be cut off from the people ......." (9:13) This is not a death sentence, but his removal from Israel.

2. The entry into the land of Canaan began with the observance of the Passover (Ep 5:10)

The feast was not observed until Israel entered the Promised Land, and was observed once a year.

3. It was kept at the time of Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 30)

The people of Israel had not kept the Passover for a long time (v. 5, small print), and kept it again under the leadership of King Hezekiah (v. 26).

4. What was kept at the time of Josiah (2 Chronicles 35:18-19)

The Israelites had forgotten to keep the Passover for a long time, and later Josiah resumed it.

5. The Passover at the time of Jesus

Jesus also kept the Passover (Lk 2:41-52).

The Passover feast was a foreshadowing of the Lord's Supper. Jesus kept the Passover before the crucifixion, and then instituted the Lord's Supper, which was continuous.

Judas was a Jew, so he had a share in the Passover feast (Mt 26:17-25, Jn 13); but he was not a true believer, so Jesus did not institute the Lord's Supper until after he had gone out (Mt 26:26-30). Now anyone who is not truly born again and saved should not participate in the breaking of bread.

The Israelites kept the Passover once a year, and all who could go up to Jerusalem went up to keep the Passover.

Good Friday: According to the traditional calculation, the Sunday after the full moon (15th day of the lunar calendar) after the spring equinox (21st day of the 3rd month of the solar calendar) is Easter, and the Friday after that is Good Friday. This algorithm is not correct.

It should be based on the date of Passover: the 14th day of the first month of the Jewish calendar equals the 14th day of the 3rd month of the Chinese lunar calendar, therefore, the 14th day of the 3rd month of the Chinese lunar calendar is "Good Friday" and the 17th day of the 3rd month of the lunar calendar is Easter (please refer to Resurrection, pages 14-15).

V. Jews keep Passover

Jews attach great importance to the Passover. On other festivals and even on Yom Kippur, many of them go to teahouses and wine shops, but they observe the Passover, because they consider it to be the history of the creation of the nation of Israel.

1. Preparation

(1) Sweeping.

Two or three weeks before the feast, they did a sweeping in each house in order to cleanse the leaven.

(2) Preparation of wheat.

They wrapped a bundle of wheat in white cloth and put it on the ceiling. The men wore white clothes to harvest and did not go near anything leavened, especially for the Passover.

(3) The firstborn shall fast.

They said to the people, "It is by the grace of God that He has saved our firstborn son. After fasting, everyone put on new clothes (better than usual), and after meeting in the synagogue, they went home to greet the people, saying, "Peace be with you!"

(4) Freedom and equality.

They were treated the same that day, without distinction between the master and the servant, the cook and the cart driver.

(5) Hand washing.

Wash your hands 3 times before sitting down, and wipe them dry afterwards.

2. Drinking four cups of wine

(1) The first cup (cup of remembrance).

To commemorate their release from Egypt and becoming a priestly nation. Usually they favored men over women, but on that day men and women were equal.

After drinking the first cup, everyone took a small plate with 3 unleavened cakes (prefiguring the priests, Levites and Israelites). The host opened the door and invited the hungry people (including beggars and travelers) to eat. They hid half of the middle one and gave the rest to each one to eat.

At this time, the children asked what the Passover meant, and the parents told them the book of Exodus.

(2) The second cup (the cup of salvation).

They raised the cup instead of drinking it, but poured the water 10 times into a saucer to show the 10 plagues of Egypt. Jesus first raised the cup of remembrance and then the cup of salvation (Lk 22:17-20).

The bitter greens, in remembrance of the distressing situation of their ancestors during the night of the Exodus.

The yugui, signifying the grass, in remembrance of the ancestors making bricks in Egypt, which Pharaoh ordered not to be given (Ex. 5:10-11).

The shin bone, which was left at the slaughter of the sheep, indicates a sad event.

Cooked chickens, indicating death. Their mourners ate the chicken with the ashes.

The dish of friendship, which Jesus used to bind his hands with Judas in the dish. It means, "If you kill me, you can still be a friend if you repent. In the dish there were walnuts (a great tree to give shade to those who travel, showing that Christ is our refuge); two dates (signifying goodness and cleanness); and an apple (rottenness inside and beauty outside, we have fellowship with the Lord and must guard against inner decay). Blessed is he who has a portion of the bun in his hand in the dish.

(3) The third cup (the cup of salvation).

The other cups are only half full, but the third cup is overflowing.

When the thanksgiving is given, each one, though weary, must still be awake. Take out the half of the bread that you hid earlier and give it to everyone. This half of the bread is called "completed", and the feast is finished.

(4) The fourth cup (the cup of the Lord's fast approaching kingdom).

At the end, they sing Psalm 24, with special emphasis on verse 9.

3. The Jews still observe the Passover

They keep the Passover as usual, but with many additions and subtractions (Isa 1:14, Moses 5:21).

At the time of Jesus, they turned the "Feast of the Lord" into a "Jewish Feast" (Jn 2:13), which had form but no content. By changing the feast, they showed their disobedience to God (Dan. 7:25).

VI. The Passover Lamb

The Passover was a "redemption": Israel crossed the Red Sea only to "save", but not to "redeem". Originally, redemption came before salvation, so the Israelites kept the Passover first before crossing the Red Sea.

1. The main thing is the lamb

The whole Passover ritual refers mainly to the lamb, which is the lamb that prefigures Christ's atonement (1 Cor. 5:7). Christ had to be slain and shed blood in order to atone for our sins. The Passover feast was primarily the eating of meat, which is the food of life. The men of Israel may not eat bread on that night (Ex. 12:34-39), but their firstborn son is kept.

2. Blood must be shed

A living sheep without disabilities cannot save us. We are not saved by the sinless life of Christ on earth. He had to go to the cross and shed His blood to pay the ransom.

3. Anointing the blood (Ex. 12:7)

If you shed blood alone and do not apply it, you are still not saved. The blood in the basin was not effective until it was taken by man.

Jesus shed His blood on the cross, so we should take it and apply it to the door of our hearts in order to be saved.



 



Chapter 2: The Feast of Unleavened Bread

Scripture reading: Exodus 12:15-20, Leviticus 23:6-8, Numbers 28:17-25, Deuteronomy 16:3

Leviticus 23 is the general account of 7 feasts. The Israelites kept the Passover and ate unleavened bread when they came out of Egypt (Exodus 12:8), and at the same time promulgated the "Feast of Unleavened Bread" to be kept later (15-20). The Passover was celebrated on the fourteenth day of the first month, and unleavened bread was eaten, but the official Feast of Unleavened Bread did not begin until the fifteenth day, which was seven days in total (Lev. 23:6). The Feast of Unleavened Bread is also called the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Ex. 34:18).

The word "leaven" has always referred to sin. The Passover prefigures salvation, which is the cause; the Feast of Unleavened Bread prefigures sanctification, which is the effect. In fact, the leavening begins from salvation and continues until we leave this world, so that we can live a holy life.

I. Unleavened Bread

The main part of the Feast of Unleavened Bread is "unleavened bread". Without unleavened bread, the Feast of Unleavened Bread is meaningless.

1. Making the bread

(1) Prepare the wheat.

The Israelite men wore white clothes to harvest the wheat, and wrapped a bundle of wheat in white cloth and put it on the ceiling, not near the leavened things.

(2) Grinding into flour.

Near the time of the feast, they had to carry the bundles of wheat on donkeys to a place 8 kilometers away from the city. There, they burned the stone mill with seven times the power of fire, so that the millstone would not contain leaven. When they finished grinding, they sang a psalm to celebrate the success of the mill.

(3) Baked bread.

They seldom buy ready-made bread. They have a special baker who collects the bread and bakes it at home, and returns it when it is ready. The bakery is in a special area and they use unleavened ovens.

(4) Cake making.

One man makes the dough, another man rolls it, and then a woman in a new dress follows. Finally, the man pierces the cake before putting it into the oven. If not pierced, the cake will rise when baked, it will be useless. The bread should be made in a good way, so that it is cooked but not burnt.

(5) On the morning of Passover, they brought some flour to the store and carefully made three loaves in the store to take home.

(6) At the end, they double-checked that there was no leaven, and if there was, they burned the remaining leaven.

2. The first unleavened bread used

This was to commemorate the Israelites' hasty departure from Egypt (Exodus 12:39).

3. Unleavened bread for the feast

You can eat leavened bread in normal times, but the bread used for the feast must be unleavened bread, because it is used to show the removal of sin (sanctification).

4. Unleavened bread must be used for the Lord's Supper

The Passover and the Lord's Supper were both made of unleavened bread (1 Cor. 5:8).

Some people use bread cut into small pieces to honor the Lord, and they think that by the time of the New Testament only spiritual meaning was important.

But Jesus and the apostles were from the New Testament era, and they also used unleavened bread. Unleavened bread has both a historical and a spiritual meaning.

5. The bread of affliction

The "bread of affliction" is found from the beginning to the end of the feast (Deut. 16:3).

6. Not saved by unleavened bread

The Israelites were not saved by unleavened bread, but by blood. Neither are we saved by the blood of the Lord, but by the blood of the Lord.

II. The Feast of Unleavened Bread

This is the feast that the Israelites kept every year: the first one is the Passover, and the second one is the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

1. Date

The Passover is celebrated on the 14th day of the first month of the Jewish calendar, and the Feast of Unleavened Bread is celebrated after the Passover. The Feast of Unleavened Bread runs from the 15th to the 21st day of the first month (Lev. 23:6). But Exodus 12:18 says, "From the evening of the fourteenth day of the first month until the evening of the twenty-first day, you shall eat unleavened bread." It turns out that the Jews entered the second day at dusk (6:00 p.m.), so the evening of the 14th day of the first month would be the 15th day. This festival is 7 days in total.

2. "You shall eat unleavened bread for seven days" (Lev 23:6, Ex 12:15)

The word "seven" means "complete". To eat unleavened bread for seven days means "complete holiness".

"...... Anyone who eats leavened bread will be cut off from Israel" (Ex. 12:15, 19), which means separation from the congregation.

3. "The First Day"

This is a Sabbath day. On this first day they were to remove the leaven.

4. "There shall be a holy assembly" (Ex. 23:16, Lev. 23:7-8)

But on the first and last two Sabbaths of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, they could prepare meals, but they could not do any "laborious" work.

5. Remembrance

They were to commemorate the history of God's deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt (Exodus 12:17-18, 13:18).

6. The sacrifices offered (Num. 28:19-25)

Except for the Passover, where the lamb was slain, there were sacrifices offered at every feast. The sacrifices offered at each feast were more or less the same, but each had its own emphasis.

(1) Fire sacrifice for seven days (Lev 23:8).

Fire offering, which is the abbreviation of all suitable offerings. It was to be offered daily and completely, so that the unleavened life could be lived.

(2) "In addition to the regular burnt offerings" (Num. 28:23-24).

The Israelites had their daily burnt offerings in the morning and evening, but the sacrifices offered during the feast were in addition to the regular burnt offerings, which were to be pleasing to God again. The burnt offering was the main sacrifice for the feast, and the vegetarian sacrifice was offered with it, and it was to be offered completely (Num. 28:20-21).

(3) A large amount (Num. 28:19, 22).

But it is not only the quantity that is required, but also the satisfaction of God and His pleasure.

Leaven

According to the law, first, no leavened bread is to be eaten; second, no leavened matter is to be seen; third, no leaven is to be found in the house (Ex. 13:7). Look carefully at the cupboards and basins ...... to see if there is a little leaven.

1. Misrepresenting the good side

(1) The parable of the leaven (Mt 13:33-35).

Some people think that this parable refers to the development of Christianity. In fact, the seven parables in Matthew 13 refer to the seven periods of the church. The parable of the leaven shows the deterioration of the whole Catholic Church into leavened bread. The Roman Catholics have many sins and heresies: they exalt Mary, pray to her, and say that she ascended to heaven. They defended the pope, saying that he was a superman, and made Peter out to be the pope, saying that the pope was not in error. They worship idols and recite fabricated scriptures. They do purgatory. They also used to have "atonement tickets" and so on.

(2) Leavened bread (Lev 23:17).

This leavened bread shows that the church is still sinful. If Christ is prefigured, leavened bread cannot be used.

(2) The reference to sin, etc.

The Bible has always used the word "leaven" to refer to sin and false doctrine, for sin is permeable and destructive.

(1) Hypocrisy: "...... Guard yourselves against the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy." (Lk 12:1)

(2) False teaching: "...... the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees" (Mt 16:6), which is said in reference to their false teaching (16:12).

(3) False doctrine: "A little leaven leavens the whole lump" (Gal. 5:9). The Galatian church was to be saved by keeping the law, and they believed that after salvation, they were to be saved by keeping the law to achieve a life of sanctification, which is "leaven. This leaven also includes all heresies and heresies.

(4) Sin: "This boasting is not good for you. Do you not know that a little leaven leavens the whole lump?" (1 Cor. 5:6) (1 Cor. 5:6)

3. Why is leaven compared to sin and false teaching?

(1) Leaven makes the flour bigger.

A big loaf of bread has many empty spaces inside. It is a false phenomenon to pretend that something that was not that big is that big.

(2) Fluffy and delicious.

Fermented, loose and soft, easy to eat and delicious. There are many things in the world that appeal to Christians, but those who fear God should give them up and take Christ as our satisfaction.

(3) "It makes the whole leaven".

The leaven is not only a foreshadowing of sin, but the leaven will start and cause the whole group to fall into sin. It does not appear to be a great evil and does not do much, but the leaven is able to corrupt the whole body. After it has grown, one can no longer see the leaven itself, but only the great bread of falsehood.

4. When the leaven is removed

1. Before the Exodus

The Passover was salvation, but we did not leave Egypt until we entered the Feast of Unleavened Bread. God not only forgives our sins, but He will deliver us from the power of sin (Exodus) and put us in a holy position to make us holy (Eph. 1:4).

2. God's requirements for human life (2 Cor. 7:1, Gal. 5:7-9)

God wants us to have a life free from sin. Man died in sin for the joy of sin. Since we left Egypt, we should not stay with things that smell like Egypt (cucumbers, Philadelphia vegetables, meat and fish in the pot).

3. Get rid of heresies

We are not only to get rid of sin, but also to prevent all evil toxins and heresies that poison people.

4. Remove all "leavened things" (Ex 12:19-20)

Destroy all incense burners, musical instruments, candlesticks, and other things that are associated with idolatry and superstition. Also, see if there are any things or instruments used for sin, such as gambling equipment, prostitutes, murder weapons, all kinds of narcotics (except for medicinal purposes), and improperly obtained things.

5. "There shall be no leaven for seven days" (Ex. 12:19)

The word "seven" means complete. We are to turn completely away from sin and from the attraction of earthly things.

6. "shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel" (v.19)

The word "cut off" does not mean to be killed, but to isolate the congregation and break off fellowship with God and man. We are not saved by unleavened bread, but by blood, for leaven will separate us from God and man.

The Israelites ate lamb, unleavened bread, and bitter vegetables in the house. In the house, there was no fear of God's wrath against Egypt, and nothing to harass them. But "leaven" could cause them to be cut off! What a harmful thing "leaven" is! That is why we must "cut it out".

7. Rest

On the first day and the seventh day there was a holy assembly (Exodus 12:16), both of which were Sabbaths. We can enter into rest only after we turn away from sin.



 



Chapter 3 The Feast of Firstfruits

Scripture reading: Exodus 23:19, Leviticus 23:9-14, Deuteronomy 26:1-11, 1 Corinthians 15:20

The Feast of the Firstfruits is a foretaste of the resurrection of Christ. If there is only the Passover (Christ's death) but not the Feast of the Firstfruits (Christ's resurrection), it is not the gospel (1 Cor. 15:1-4).

I. The Feast of the Trinity

Some people do not include the Feast of the Firstfruits in the feast because Leviticus 23:9-14 does not contain the words "firstfruits". Others think that the Feast of the Firstfruits is a subsidiary of the Passover. This is not true.

1. It is a separate feast

The Feast of the Firstfruits is the third of the seven feasts listed.

The Feast of the Firstfruits had a sacrificial ordinance (Lev 23:14): on this day, there was a special offering.

2. The general name is "Feast of Unleavened Bread".

The Feast of Unleavened Bread is also called the Feast of the Removal of Leaven (Ex. 34:18).

The Passover is celebrated on the 14th day of the first month (Lev. 23:5); the Feast of Unleavened Bread is celebrated for seven days in a row starting from the 15th day (vv. 6-8), and the Feast of the Firstfruits is within the Feast of Unleavened Bread (v. 11), for with the resurrection life (Feast of the Firstfruits) comes the resurrection life (Feast of Unleavened Bread).

3. There are three different but connected feasts

(1) Passover: Our sins are atoned for by the death of Christ.

(2) The Feast of the Firstfruits: Because of Christ's resurrection, we have new life.

(3) The Feast of Unleavened Bread: We are sanctified and justified because Christ is the sinless Lamb.

So the Feast of Firstfruits is placed in the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which does not refer to the day of the first harvest.

It does not refer to the first harvest. It is not allowed to eat leavened things in all three feasts.

The Feast of the Firstfruits after entering Canaan

After the Israelites came out of Egypt, they drifted in the wilderness for 40 years, and Joshua led them into Canaan. They only kept the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread in the wilderness, but did not keep the Feast of Firstfruits. They only kept the Feast of Firstfruits when they entered Canaan: "Speak to the Israelites, saying, When you come into the land I give you (the land of Canaan) ......." (Lev. 23:10, cf. 14) They drifted in the wilderness, did not cultivate, and ate only manna that came down from heaven, so there was no Feast of Firstfruits.

1. Harvest Thanksgiving

They brought the firstfruits before God and gave thanks with the people on the first day of the harvest every year. On this day, they considered themselves unworthy of grace. They realized that God alone is the source of blessing. They brought the firstfruits to the place appointed by God to observe the Passover, the Feast of Unleavened Bread, and the Feast of the Firstfruits.

The ordinance of offering the firstfruits (Deut. 26:1-11)

In remembrance of the salvation of their fathers (26:5-8, cf. Hos. 12:12): they were to have something to offer and worship after entering the land of Canaan (Deut. 26:10), and to rejoice in the blessings of God (v. 11).

3. Offerings as shaking sacrifices (Lev 14:12, 24, 23:11)

(1) Use barley: Because barley matures two or three weeks earlier than wheat.

(2) Shake the bundle (Lev 23:11).

In the old days, when they sacrificed sheep and cattle, they shook the breast and legs (9:21), and they shook the ram lamb with the oil (14:12, 24); now they shook the "bundle" of the first ripe produce. The word "shake" means to manifest the Lord, to be pleased. The high priest lifted up the barley to the altar, shook it, and then withdrew. This was done to show that it was offered to God.

4. "For a burnt offering"

"A male lamb a year old, without disability, shall be offered to the LORD as a burnt offering." (Lev. 23:12)

5. "The vegetarian offering of the same" (Lev 23:13)

The burnt offering first, then the vegetarian offering, was acceptable. The "vegetarian sacrifice" was double that of the regular vegetarian sacrifice.

6. "The sacrificial offering" (Lev 23:13ff)

The wine was poured on the foot of the altar of burnt offering. Leviticus mentions the "sacrifice" for the first time here. During the feast days, there were often sacrifices. There were also personal sacrifices (Num. 6:17).

The sacrifice was not a separate sacrifice designated by the Law, but was to be offered "together" with the vegetarian sacrifice. It was also a sacrifice that was offered after the Israelites entered Canaan (Lev 23:10), but it was not to be applied to the daily burnt offerings.

There were other burnt offerings (Lev 23:12-13)

In addition to the firstfruits as a shake offering, there were also burnt offerings, but not many of them. This was in addition to the burnt offerings and the vegetarian offerings that were always offered, and in addition to the burnt offerings and the vegetarian offerings that were offered at the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

The people could enjoy it together (Lev 23:14)

The offering of the firstfruits was a sign of the complete sanctification of the LORD. After the offering was made, the people could enjoy it together. God came first and the people came second.

3. "The firstfruits are Christ" (1 Cor 15:23)

(1 Cor. 15:23)

Christ is the firstfruits, referring to His resurrection.

1. "A grain of wheat" (Jn 12:24)

God has a grain of wheat (Jesus), and a grain of wheat does not die, but remains a grain. "If he died" indicates that Christ had to fall to earth and die. Christ, if He does not die, has always been just a grain. Christ dying is not yet the gospel; He is the gospel when He is resurrected. He was resurrected in order to bear many grains of fruit. Today millions of Christians are born from this one grain of dead wheat, which has produced countless seeds.

2. Christ is the firstfruits (1 Cor 15:20)

The "firstfruits" are the first resurrection.

(1) Israel is the firstborn, but not the firstfruits.

(2) All those who were resurrected before Christ's resurrection were not formally resurrected: they were merely "reawakened" because they did not have resurrected spiritual bodies; they were still dying.

The resurrected saints outside Jerusalem (Mt 27:52-53): They were the vanguard of Jesus' resurrection, but they were not the firstfruits, they were only the firstfruits of the sheaves.

(3) Only Christ ceased to die after His resurrection, so He is the "firstfruits" of all the fruits, the first to be formally resurrected. But the word "fruit" is in the plural, and this includes us all.

Why Christians are not the firstfruits, but are the firstfruits

(1) Christians are not the first fruits.

Christ is the first fruits of the firstfruits, "afterward, at His coming, those who are Christ's" (1 Cor. 15:23). The focus here is on the order of the resurrection (v. 22).

(2) Christians are "like the firstfruits" (Jas 1:18).

The word "like" means "to become a certain kind of". Christ is the firstfruits. God has begotten us with the truth, and we have His life and have become a kind of firstfruits: "We who 'have' the firstfruits of the Spirit ......." (Rom. 8:23)

Christ is our model (Rom. 8:29, 1 Cor. 15:22-23): Christ is not just the first-born, He is our model.

(3) "To the first fruits of Christ" (Rom. 16:5).

Here we are not talking about the resurrection, but about the conversion to Christ. When we lead someone to Christ, he is the "firstfruits" (1 Cor 16:15, Rev 14:4).

The Resurrection of Christ

The Feast of the Firstfruits is a foretaste of Christ's resurrection, and now we will talk a little about the resurrection of Christ.

1. On the "second day of the Sabbath" (Lev 23:11)

The Sabbath was the seventh day, and the day after the Sabbath was the eighth day, or "the first day of the seventh month" (Lk 24:1). It was on the "first day of the seventh month" that Christ was resurrected. 2.

2. If Christ is not raised, there is no gospel (1 Cor. 15:1-4).

3. Christ

If Christ had not been slain on the Passover, our sins would not have been atoned for; if there had been only a Passover lamb, but not a "handicapped-free" lamb, this would not have atoned for our sins; if Christ had only died on the cross, His life would have been nothing more than a "sinless life". Without Christ's resurrection, we cannot be saved (Rom. 10:9). Let us not forget that the Feast of the Firstfruits is combined with the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Christians go through the Passover first; after salvation they go through the Feast of Unleavened Bread to live a sinless life, and to live out the power of Christ's resurrection (Phil. 3:9-11), or to have a "more beautiful resurrection".

4. Easter

The English Easter is called "Easter", which is the Babylonian worship of the "heavenly" goddess "Ishtar". It means chocolate egg. In 519 A.D., the Roman Patriarchs decreed "Easter" and "Lent". Since then, the Church has traditionally adopted "Ishtar" as Easter, that is, the Sunday after the full moon on the spring equinox is Easter, and Easter eggs are distributed on Easter Day. This is not what the Bible calls the day of the Lord's resurrection.

We can only remember the day of Jesus' crucifixion according to the Passover (the 14th day of the first month of the Jewish calendar). The 14th day of the first month of the Jewish calendar is equal to the 14th day of the 3rd month of our lunar calendar, and 3 more days later, the 17th day of the 1st month (the 17th day of the 3rd month of our lunar calendar), is the day of Christ's resurrection. This is the correct calculation. (Please see Resurrection, pages 15-16 for more details)



 


Chapter 4 Pentecost

Scripture reading: Leviticus 23:15-22, Acts 2:1-4, 43-47

The 7 feasts are all prophecies of pre-tribulation: the first 3 feasts have been fulfilled and become past; the last 3 feasts have not been fulfilled and are future; the middle one, Pentecost, was fulfilled 50 days after the resurrection of Christ (the coming of the Holy Spirit to establish the church), but the church is extended until the second coming of Christ.

This feast does not begin with the words "The LORD said to Moses" (Lev 23:15, cf. 1, 9, 23, 26, 33).

I. Timing (Lev. 23:15-16)

The beginning of Israel's summer harvest was the Feast of Firstfruits, and the end of the summer harvest was the Feast of Pentecost (Deut. 16:9-11), which fell in the third and fourth months of the Jewish calendar. Although it is not necessary to count from that day each year, it must be counted from the Feast of Firstfruits.

Pentecost was only one day (Deut. 16:9-12), that is, from the Feast of Firstfruits, "to the second day of the seventh Sabbath, fifty days in all" (Lev. 23:16). They kept the feast for only one day, the fiftieth day, but after this day was fulfilled, it was extended until the second coming of Christ.

Name

Some people call it "Pentecost". But this is not quite appropriate, because the fulfillment of Pentecost is not only the coming of the Holy Spirit, but also for the building up of the church.

1. Pentecost

Although the word "Pentecost" is not mentioned in Leviticus 23:15-22, Numbers 28:26-31, or Deuteronomy 16:9-12, but only "the seven Sabbaths of the second day, fifty days in all", Acts 2:1 clearly says, "Pentecost has come".

From the "second day of the Sabbath" (Lev. 23:11, 15) of the Feast of the Firstfruits to the "second day of the seventh Sabbath" (v. 16), a total of 50 days, that is, "Pentecost".

2. The "seventy-seventh day" (Deut. 16:9-10)

This is the name of the "seventh day of the week" according to the law.

3. "The Feast of the Harvest" (Ex. 23:16)

Note that it is not the "Feast of Ingathering", which is to be kept at the end of the year (Ex. 34:22).

The "Feast of the Harvest" indicates the completion of the barley harvest (Deut. 16:9) and the forecast of the beginning of the wheat harvest (Ex. 34:22).

The first harvest offering was only a bundle of crops (Lev 23:10), indicating that Christ's resurrection was a "bundle"; the first harvest offering was more than a "bundle", indicating that 3,000 people repented and believed in Christ on the day of Pentecost.

III. The sacrifices offered (Lev 23:16-20)

The greatest number of sacrifices was offered on one day, followed by Pentecost, but only on Pentecost were various sacrifices offered.

1. The new vegetarian sacrifice (Lev 23:16-17)

The new vegetarian sacrifice was the characteristic of this feast.

(1) New.

It was not a new harvest, which was already harvested at the Feast of Firstfruits.

This was another vegetarian sacrifice in addition to the usual vegetarian sacrifices. The new vegetarian sacrifice was a prefiguration of the church.

(2) "Two-tenths of an ephah of fine flour" (v. 17).

The fine flour was wheat flour. Barley flour was used for the Feast of the Firstfruits.

(3) "leavened" (v. 17).

At all times, "leaven" is an indication of sin or heresy. The Israelites were allowed to eat leavened bread every day, but the sacrifice was made of unleavened bread. Why was leaven added to the Pentecostal sacrifice? It was not a prefiguration of Christ.

(4) "Baked into two loaves for shaking".

The loaves: not "one bundle", loosely, but one firm loaf (1 Cor. 10:16-17).

Two loaves: The word "two" means to bear witness. The church is to bear witness, and the church itself is a witness. The church is made up of Jews and Gentile believers into one (Eph 2:11-22). Under the law, the Jews and Gentiles were separate, but in Christ it is a new vegetarian sacrifice of two leavened loaves, which bear witness to Christ together.

(5) The church is still sinful (Mt 13:38, Acts 5:1-10, 15:1).

The church has the element of Christ (for it is bread made of the firstfruits of wheat, Lev 23:10), and the element of the old man (leavening). Therefore, it was to be offered with the sin offering (v. 19).

2. Burnt offerings

Ten sacrifices were to be offered: "And seven lambs a year old, without disability, one bull calf, and two male sheep ......." (Lev. 23:18) Numbers 28:27 is also 10, but with some differences: "Two male calves and one male sheep ......."

3. "The vegetarian sacrifice of the same offering" (Lev 23:18)

The new vegetarian sacrifice prefigures the sinful church, and the co-offering prefigures the sinless Christ. The co-offering had to be offered with the blood offering and could not be offered separately. It is an indication of the sinless life of Christ.

The number of offerings in Numbers 28:28 is "three tenths of an ephah", which is one tenth more than here. The feasts mentioned in Numbers were after the great mistakes of the people of Israel, so the demands on them were higher.

4. The sacrifices (Lev 23:18)

The drink-offerings are a prefiguration of the outpouring of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:32-33). The burnt offerings were offered with the same sacrifice of vegetation and dessert.

5. The sin offering (Lev 23:19)

"You shall offer a male goat as an offering for sins." The sacrifice for sin was originally a male calf (Lev 4:3), but a male goat was also used for the sacrifice attached to the same sacrifice for sin (Lev 4:23, Num 28:30).

6. Peace offering (Lev 23:19)

The peace offering was added only on the day of Pentecost, but here the atonement sacrifice was offered before the peace offering.

Deuteronomy 16:9-10 is the seventy-seventh verse, which mentions the "sweetheart offering", which is a peace offering (Lev. 7:16). The grace of Pentecost was abundant, so we should be thankful. Pentecost was about the sacrifice of the heart. We give thanks again that others may be provided for: "Leave it for the poor and the sojourner." (Lev 23:22)

Although Pentecost was only one day, it was a day of rejoicing (Deut. 16:11). 7.

7. The shaking sacrifice (Lev 23:20)

This was also one of the peace offerings. The shaking sacrifice on the Feast of the Firstfruits was a sheaf offering (Lev 23:11). The shaking offering here was a "bread" offering, "shake it before the Lord" (v.20). To shake is to manifest the Lord and to be accepted.

Proclaiming the holy assembly

"You shall proclaim the holy assembly, and no laborious work shall be done." (Lev. 23:21) The sacrifices mentioned above are many. So many sacrifices were offered at Pentecost, but God was not satisfied. Everyone must pay attention to the "holy assembly" and "do not do any laborious work. Unfortunately, there are many Christians today who do not value the sacred assembly and see the laborious work more than the assembly. Acts 2:1-36 is a serious sacred assembly, so they are greatly blessed.

V. The Coming of the Holy Spirit to Establish the Church

(Acts 2:1-4, 43-47)

The Old Testament feast of Pentecost was a foretaste of the coming of the Holy Spirit to establish the church, which was fulfilled in Acts 2.

1. "Pentecost has come" (Acts 2:1)

Pentecost is a period of 10 days, and Pentecost is a period of 50 days. From the Feast of Firstfruits to Pentecost is 50 days, and the Feast of Firstfruits prefigures the resurrection of Christ, while Pentecost prefigures the coming of the Holy Spirit to establish the church. Pentecost should be 50 days from Christ's resurrection, and Jesus ascended into heaven 40 days after His resurrection: "And after He had suffered, He showed Himself alive to the apostles with many proofs, and appeared to them forty days long, speaking about the kingdom of God." (Acts 1:3) After that, He ascended into heaven (verse 9). "...... Now the disciples went back from there to Jerusalem, and when they had entered the city, they went up to a building where they were staying. There ...... all prayed with one accord and perseverance." (vv. 12-14) They met in prayer (v. 15) for 10 days: "The day of Pentecost came" (2:1), when the Holy Spirit came, fulfilling the Old Testament feast of Pentecost.

When Jesus was on earth, the Holy Spirit had not yet come (John 16:7). When Jesus ascended to heaven, He sent the Holy Spirit to come. The Old Testament is the "Age of the Father", and Jesus' earthly life is the "Age of the Son". After the coming of the Holy Spirit, it is the "Age of the Holy Spirit".

2. The purpose of the coming of the Holy Spirit

The purpose of the coming of the Holy Spirit is not only to fill believers (Acts 1:8, 2:4), but also to build up the church and provide power. The establishment of the church is based on the foundation of the Lord's resurrection.

3. The coming of the Holy Spirit and the filling of the Holy Spirit

Pentecost was the coming of the Holy Spirit, but on the day of the coming of the Holy Spirit they were filled with the Holy Spirit at the same time (Acts 2:2, 4).

Pentecost is not a code word for the filling of the Holy Spirit. The purpose of the coming of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost was to build up the church. The Old Testament kept Pentecost every year until Acts 2, "The Day of Pentecost came", which was the fulfillment of the Old Testament Pentecost. There was only one fulfillment of Pentecost, and there was no second Pentecost after that.

After the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, we all have the Holy Spirit. If we cleanse ourselves, the Holy Spirit will fill us (Eph. 5:18).



 



Chapter 5: Blowing Horn Festival

Scripture reading: Leviticus 23:23-25, Numbers 29:1-6

The time between Pentecost and the Feast of the Blowing of the Trumpets is particularly long. Pentecost fell in the third month of the Jewish calendar, while the Feast of the Blowing of the Trumpets fell on the first day of the seventh month, a gap of four months. This was the time when the harvest was busy.

Leviticus 23:23-25 is between the seven feasts and is only briefly recorded, while Numbers 29:1-6 is more detailed.

I. The Feasts that Prefigure the Second Coming of Christ

The first three feasts foretell the past events; Pentecost is in the middle, foretelling the present (church-focused) events; the last three feasts foretell the future (Christ's return to heaven). The Feast of the Blowing of the Trumpets is the first of the last three feasts, and foreshadows the return of Christ.

1. The feasts of the seventh month

The last three feasts are all within the "seventh month", and "seven" means complete. There are three feasts in one month, and the seventh month becomes the "Sabbath", just as the seventh day of the week is the Sabbath.

The Feast of the Blowing of Horns was on the "first day of the seventh month" (Lev 23:24). Originally, they blew horns on the first day of every month (Psalm 81).

Their old calendar, New Year's Day, adopted the Babylonian spring as the beginning of the year, which was the commoner's year. It was later changed to Rosh Hashanah, which means the beginning of the year, or New Year.

The month of July was the New Year of Israel: they called it the month of Tannaim (1 Kings 8:2), which later became Tishri.

The Feast of the Blowing of the Horns is an ancient ordinance. When the Israelites were in the wilderness, Moses used the people's ransom money to make two trumpets "to gather the people together and to raise the camp." (Num. 10:2)

2. The sacrifices offered

"And you shall offer to the LORD a male calf, and a male sheep, and seven male lambs a year old without disability, as a burnt offering of fragrant odor. And for the same sacrifice, with fine flour mixed with oil, three tenths of an ephah for a bullock, and two tenths of an ephah for a male sheep, and for each of the seven lambs, one tenth of an ephah. And a male goat for a sin offering, to make atonement for your sins." (Num. 29:2-5) The same number was offered on the Day of Atonement as is offered here (vv. 8-11).

II. The Dispersion and Return of Israel

The long interval from Pentecost to the Feast of the Blowing of the Trumpets indicates a long interval between the coming of the Holy Spirit and the return of Christ. Before Christ's return, Israel will return and be restored from the world.

1. The Scattering of the World

In 70 A.D. Israel was scattered throughout the world, because they had forsaken Jesus and crucified Him. During the period from Pentecost to the Feast of the Blowing of the Trumpets, the church came out and was exalted above the people of Israel.

2. God did not abandon Israel (Rom. 11:23-26)

God did not use the church to replace Israel forever. The non-millennialists believe that God abandoned Israel and replaced the nation of Israel with the church. But the restoration of Israel shatters their spiritual interpretation of Scripture.

3. The Return at the End (Deut. 30:1-5)

Israel was restored on May 14, 1948, and Weizmann was elected as the first president (see "A Look at Israel" for details).

4. God preserved the land of Israel

The land of Israel is made of chalky lime layers. If there was not enough rain, it would cause drought, because Israel did not have enough rivers for irrigation and there were many mountains. It was not until the end of the 19th century that the rains increased in Israel, fulfilling the prophecy of the Bible, that the land of Israel was preserved.

5. God preserved the people of Israel

The present Israelites are mainly Jews. They had not only fallen away, but had been scattered to all the countries of the world for more than 1900 years, and it was impossible for them to be restored, but God preserved them and eventually they were able to return and be restored.

The Fulfillment of the Feast of the Blowing of the Trumpets

The last three feasts are successive, with heavenly and earthly fulfillment.

1. The restoration of Israel is a foreshadowing

Now the restoration of Israel is not a fulfillment of the Feast of the Blowing of the Trumpets, but a foreshadowing.

The use of a person or a thing to show what will come to pass later is a foreshadowing; the use of words to say what will come to pass in the future is a prophecy. The Feast of the Blowing of the Trumpets was a prophecy of a foreshadowing. The long scattered Israelites were called back to their country (Isa. 18:3, 27:13, etc.) as a foretaste of the return of Christ.

2. The blowing of the trumpet (Lev 23:23)

The original text is not a trumpet, but probably refers to the shout of the crowd. According to Jewish heredity, it should be the horn of a ram, which is only used in serious gatherings. They blew the trumpets to announce the coming of the jubilee year (Lev 25:8-10).

The full fulfillment will be at the end of the seven-year tribulation, when Jesus will "come on the clouds of heaven. He will send messengers with the loud voice of a trumpet to gather His elect from the four quarters of the earth, from this side of heaven to the other." (Mt 24:30ff-31) So the blowing of the trumpet also includes the trumpet.

Fourth, the Lord will come again soon

First, the fig tree sprouted (Mt 24:32), which speaks of the return and restoration of Israel. After the restoration of Israel (1948), it could not be prolonged indefinitely.

When Christ comes again into the air, the dead believers will rise first, and the living believers will be physically changed and be lifted up into the clouds with the risen ones to meet the Lord in the air. At the coming of the Lord, "a trumpet of God is blown." (1 Thessalonians 4:16-17) This is a prelude to the full fulfillment of the Feast of the Blowing of the Trumpets. It was not until the end of the seven-year tribulation when God then called back all the rest of Israel by an angel blowing a trumpet, that the Feast of the Blowing of Trumpets was fully fulfilled.



 


Chapter 6: The Day of Atonement

Scripture reading: Leviticus 16, 23:26-32.

The sixth feast is not called a "feast", but a "day of atonement".

After the rapture of the church, the earth enters the seven-year tribulation. At the end of the seven years of tribulation, God opened a fountain of atonement for the people of Israel to atone for their sins.

I. The Annual Day of Atonement (Lev. 16)

This was a ritual for national cleansing, so it is recorded at the end of the discussion of cleansing rites (chapters 11-16), rather than in detail in chapter 23. 16 is an important chapter in Leviticus and an important chapter in the Bible. It is especially about Aaron, and chapter 23 is especially about the task of the people. The Day of Atonement is also known as the "Feast of Fasting." (Acts 27:9)

1. The time (Lev 23:26): the tenth day of the seventh month

The first to the tenth day of the seventh month was a "period of self-examination". The tenth day of the first month is the Day of Atonement, the only fasting festival of the year. The nation would not do any work, but would fast for one day. This was the most important day of the year for the Israelites, but they did not observe Yom Kippur in the wilderness. 2.

2. First of all, "Aaron's two sons" died (Lev 16:1)

"And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, each took his own censer, filled it with fire, and added incense, and offered it before the LORD with fire, which the LORD had not commanded them, and fire came out from before the LORD and consumed them, and they died before the LORD." (Lev. 10:1-2)

"After the death of Aaron's two sons ......, the LORD dictated to Moses, saying, 'Tell your brother Aaron not to enter within the veil of the sanctuary, before the seat of grace on the ark, at any time, lest he die... ...'" (Lev. 16:1-2) "Within the veil of the sanctuary" refers to the Most Holy Place, which Aaron was not to enter "at any time". 16:1-10 is about Aaron's preparation. 3.

3. The Most Holy Place was open to the high priest alone on the Day of Atonement

The normal sacrifice was performed by the priest in the outer court, but the high priest entered the Most Holy Place once a year. He first took off his golden garments, then washed himself with water, and put on fine linen (16:4). This was a sign that Jesus had given up his heavenly glory.

The high priest entered the Most Holy Place: bringing blood, spices and fire, a burning incense burner, and making the golden bells at the bottom of his outer robe ring.

The high priest sprinkled the blood on top of the throne of grace and in front of it. When the high priest had done this, he sat down. This is an indication that Jesus ascended into heaven and brought the blood to the heavenly sanctuary, and that He sat down at the right hand of God when He had finished His work of salvation (Heb. 10:12, 12:24).

4. The high priest makes atonement for himself and his family (Lev 16:11-14)

This does not prefigure Jesus, for He did not have to make atonement for Himself.

(1) The slaughter of the bull (v.11).

Aaron was associated with the priests.

(2) Burning incense before the mercy seat (vv. 12-13).

Aaron asked for forgiveness and confessed that he was damned. "The smoke cloud of incense covered the throne of grace of the ark of the law". The throne of grace was the cover of the ark of the covenant, prefiguring the resurrection of Christ overshadowing him.

(3) "And the blood was sprinkled seven times before the throne of grace" (v. 14).

The sprinkling on the throne of grace was once, but here the blood was "sprinkled seven times", and was offered to God face to face, fulfilling God's request before Him.

The Passover was to put the blood on the lintel and door frame, but here it was to cover it with blood.

In the Old Testament, the word "atonement" means "covering", and there are 48 times in Leviticus. It means to cover the throne of grace with blood, and the cloud of smoke is also covering the throne of grace.

Atonement for the people (Lev 16:15-19)

This atonement sacrifice was different from the normal atonement sacrifice. Here it was a special atonement sacrifice, "a rite of atonement in the sanctuary" (v. 16). He came out of the sanctuary (v. 17) and "performed the sacrifice of atonement on the altar" (v. 18). The "altar" here is said to be the altar of incense, but most people think it is the altar of burnt offering (v. 12). This is a prefiguration of the cross. The anointing of the blood on all sides (v. 18) indicates complete forgiveness.

6. Taking the three sheep (Lev 16:5)

Normally, only one goat was offered, but here there were three additional goats: one to be killed, one to be released, and one for the burnt offering.

(1) The two male goats were sacrificed for sin (vv. 7-8).

(1) One "to the LORD" (verse 9): the one that was killed.

(2) One "to Asahel" (v.10): The Bible only mentions "Asahel" twice here (v.8, 10).

Some say that this is an indication of the devil, which corresponds to verse 9, "to the LORD". Moreover, he was "sent into the wilderness" (v. 21), which means he is a demon in the wilderness. This interpretation is not correct.

Both of the male goats are prefigurative of Christ: "two hands were laid on the head of the goat" (v. 21), and the laying on of hands means substitution. Normally only one hand is laid on the goat (4:4, 33), but here it is "two hands". The ransom for our sins cannot be given to the devil (Exodus 30:12), but only to God, so the word "Asahel" cannot refer to the devil. Leviticus 16:20 "the male goat" is translated as "the scapegoat" in English. This goat will bear all their sins and bring them to no man's land." (Lev 16:22) (Lev. 16:22) This means to be cut off, to be completely removed, to be seen no more (Isa. 38:17, Mic. 7:19).

One was killed and one was sent into the wilderness; one dead sheep and one live sheep, which is a sign that Christ died and rose again for our sins (Rom. 5:10).

(2) "A male sheep for a burnt offering" (Lev 16:5).

When Aaron had finished, he took off his fine linen garments, washed himself, and put back on what the high priest usually wore, and went out into the outer court to offer a burnt offering for himself and the people, and he burned the fat of the sin offering (vv. 23-25).

7. "Keep the Sabbath holy" (Lev 16:31, 23:32)

"Be hard on your heart" (23:27, 29, 32): "Be hard on your heart" is mentioned 3 times here. In order to atone for the sins of the whole congregation of Israel (16:16, 21-22), they were to fast and suffer themselves and meet to confess their sins. This was the only day of the year when fasting was required. This feast was to be a time of repentance and confession, but the Feast of Tabernacles was a time of joy.

Unfortunately, many Jews now go to the teahouse on the Day of Atonement, a day when they need to suffer their hearts, and very few go to the meetings!

8. The Jews did not keep this feast after the return from captivity

When they returned, they did not bring the ark of the covenant and other holy vessels back to their country. They rebuilt the temple, but not the ark of the covenant.

The sacrifice offered on the Day of Atonement was the only sacrifice related to the ark of the covenant, so they did not keep this feast.

II. Prefigurations and Lessons

We Christians do not have to keep the Jewish feasts, but their feasts are very meaningful to us. We must be familiar with the foreshadowing of the feasts and learn valuable lessons from them.

1. The High Priest's Entry into the Most Holy Place

"Aaron entered into the sanctuary" (Lev 16:3), where the sanctuary means "the Most Holy Place": "within the veil of the sanctuary" (v. 2).

Aaron's entry into the Most Holy Place prefigures Jesus' "once-for-all entry into the Holy Place" (Heb. 9:12, 26, 10:12-14).

2. "Covering" becomes "atonement" for sins

"The original word "atonement" is "covering", but not yet the removal of sins: "For the blood of bulls and goats does not take away sins. (Heb. 10:4) It was not until the crucifixion of Jesus that the "redemption sacrifice" was made to wash away our sins.

The Old Testament used bulls and goats as sacrifices, and those who sinned were saved from death by the blood of bulls and goats. But the sheep and oxen were slain and bled only as a foreshadowing of the blood of Christ. Jesus is "the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world." (1Jn 1:29) The blood of bulls and goats in the Old Testament only "covered" man's sins, but the blood of Christ washed away man's sins: "The blood of His Son Jesus also cleanses us from all sin." (1 John 1:7)

There are several passages in the New Testament that cover sin: "He said, 'Blessed is the man who has his transgressions forgiven and his sins covered .......'" (Rom. 4:7-8) This is a quote from David in the Psalms to prove that it is blessed to be justified by faith and not by works. "This man should know: to turn a sinner from his lost way is to save a soul from death, and to cover a multitude of sins." (Jas 5:20) This refers to "saving one soul" and covering one's many sins for a time, but cleansing them by the blood of the Lord. "...... For love covers many sins." (1 Pet. 4:8), having love covers many sins for a time, but there is still the blood of the Lord to cleanse from sin.

In summary, the Old Testament is a covering of sins and the New Testament is a washing of sins. To cover, it still exists; to cleanse, it is no more.

3. Atonement of Israel's sins

The Day of Atonement, which follows the Feast of the Blowing of the Horns, is mainly for Israel. Israel was called back from the nations, and they were to undergo seven years of tribulation. God wanted to reckon with their sin of crucifixion (Dan. 9:24), and then Israel finally repented (Jas. 12:10-14): the "house of David" (v. 12) was the king's family, the "house of Nathan" (v. 12) was the prophet's family, and the "house of Levi" (v. 12) was the prophet's family. The "house of Levi" (v. 13) was the priestly tribe, and the "house of Shechem" (v. 13) was the Levites and prominent members of the community, "They will look to me, whom they have rooted." (verse 10)

God opens a fountain of cleansing for them: "In that day a fountain will be opened to the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem to wash away iniquity and defilement." (Jas 13:1)

The Israelites went through seven years of tribulation in which they died two-thirds and only one-third remained: "Two-thirds of all the people of the land shall be cut off and die, but one-third shall remain, says the Lord." (Jas 13:8) When two-thirds of the nation of Israel died, the remaining one-third was not called "the nation" but "the whole family": "...... When the number of the Gentiles is filled, then the 'whole house' of Israel will be saved ......." (Rom. 11:25-26)

So, the "Day of Atonement" is primarily the seven-year tribulation that the earth will experience after the return of the Lord and the rapture of the church. Two-thirds of the Israelites died in the tribulation, and the remaining one-third received God's fountain of cleansing to wash away their sins, so that the whole house of Israel would be saved.




 


Chapter 7: Feast of Tabernacles

Scripture reading: Leviticus 23:33-43

The Feast of Tabernacles is the last of the seven feasts. In contrast to the first feast: the Passover recalls the Egyptian dominion; the Feast of Tabernacles recalls the wilderness life. Passover is at the beginning of the planting season; Tabernacles is at the end of the planting season. The Feast of Tabernacles does not mention "leaven". It is because the Feast of Tabernacles foreshadows the Millennial Kingdom.

I. Feast of Tabernacles

1. One of the three obligatory feasts

The feasts that the Israelites had to go to Jerusalem to observe 3 times a year (Ex. 23:14-17, Deut. 16:16).

(1) Passover.

The observance of the Passover was the beginning of the remembrance of salvation and the recollection of salvation.

(2) Pentecost.

A foretaste of the fullness of the Holy Spirit in the church.

(3) Feast of Tabernacles.

A foretaste of dwelling with the Lord in the kingdom of heaven.

2. Booths

They built booths with branches (Feast of Tabernacles, Deut. 16:13-17), and the men of Israel went to Jerusalem every year to build booths for the Feast. They did not live in houses, but in sheds as a group.

(1) The Israelites came out of Egypt.

Their first stop in the wilderness was Excom (Ex. 12:37, 13:20), and the original word "Excom" means "sheds", which recalls the life of drifting in the wilderness.

(2) Peter said, "Build three sheds" (Mt 17:4), because it was "good" to be on the mountain.

(3) The sheds were for the workers at harvest time (Isa 1:8).

(4) The tabernacle was a tent (Lev 23:42-43).

It reminds people of the tabernacle in the wilderness (Neh. 8:14-17).

3. The 15th day of the 7th month (Lev 23:33)

It is close to the Feast of the Blowing of the Trumpets and the Day of Atonement, and is combined into one group, but is a long way from Pentecost, and even further from Passover. From the Passover to the Feast of Tabernacles, six months pass.

July (Tishri): This month is the beginning of the great year (calendar year) of Israel. Their seventh month corresponds to the solar calendar between September and October.

"Keep the seventh day of this feast" July 15-22 (Lev. 23:34-43): 7 means complete. 6,000 years have passed and the 7th year is about to enter. 4.

4. "The Feast of Ingathering" (Ex 23:16, 34:22)

The Feast of Firstfruits is a "harvest festival"; the Feast of Tabernacles is a "collection festival", when the harvest is finished.

After Christ's return, he will reap the harvest, separate the good from the bad, and collect the good (Mt 13:30, 39-42); when Christ descended to earth with the saints, he separated the sheep from the goats and collected the good into the kingdom of heaven (Mt 25:31-46).

5. "Seven days of joy" (Lev 23:40)

The Feast of Unleavened Bread was also seven days (Lev 23:6), but it was to be a day of hard work to remove sins. The Day of Atonement was also "a day of suffering" (Lev 23:29, 32).

The Feast of Tabernacles was a "great joy" (Deut. 16:14-15).

The seventh day of the week is a day of complete joy. There is no complete joy in the world. The Israelites did not rejoice in their homes, but with all the people, because of the presence of the Lord. The Feast of Tabernacles was a festival of joy (1 Kings 8:2, Ezekiel 45:25).

The greatest number of sacrifices (Num 29:12-38)

This passage details the number of daily offerings.

(1) The first day was the largest. The last day was the least, but it was also more than the other feasts.

(2) The sacrifices to be offered.

There were the five sacrifices and other sacrifices (e.g., the dian, the lifting, the shaking). A total of 189 sacrifices were offered.

(3) Rams and lambs: The same number of rams and lambs were offered on all seven days.

(4) Number of rams.

The number of rams for the burnt offering decreases. There were 13 rams on the first day and 7 rams on the seventh day, totaling 70 rams, with an average of 10 rams per day.

This shows the manifestation of the nature of those born in the kingdom of heaven. As soon as Satan was released, many followed him (Rev. 20:7-10).

(5) What was offered on the eighth day, one bull and one ram each, and seven ram lambs (Num. 29:36).

But many people just enjoyed, rejoiced and gave thanks, and did not offer!

7. The Serious Meeting (Lev 23:35-36, Num 29:35)

The people listened to the priest read the law in the tent for 8 days (Neh. 8:18), but the 8th day was the solemn meeting and enjoyed the Sabbath. This was to show that the harvest was finished. They first offered fire sacrifices and rejoiced together for 7 days, and the 8th day was a solemn meeting.

Only the 7th day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread was a solemn meeting (Deut. 16:8), which was to bring holiness to individuals, and the 7th day of the Feast of Tabernacles was a solemn meeting, which was God's way of bringing rest to people.

8. From the Old Testament to the New Testament

From Joshua to Nehemiah, the Feast of Tabernacles was not observed once (Neh. 8:17-18); after returning from Babylon, it was observed for a short time and then stopped; at the time of Jesus (Jn. 7:2), Jesus also went to the Feast (v. 10).

II. Prefiguring the Millennial Kingdom

1. Israel came out of Egypt to establish a kingdom of priests (Ex. 19:5-6)

God wanted them to lead the nations to the true God, but Israel sinned and forsook Christ, the King of the Kingdom, and God inserted the church. By the time the kingdom of heaven was realized, Jesus taught the disciples that their prayers were fulfilled (Mt 6:10).

2. Christ establishes the kingdom of heaven after His second coming

He first descended into the air, and after seven years He descended to the earth with the saints, and after binding the devil, He entered the millennial kingdom, and the heavenly kingdom of the Son was realized on earth (Rev. 20:4-6).

3. The nations

In addition to the nation of Israel and the church, those nations who believed after the seven-year tribulation became nations in the kingdom of heaven (Mt 25:34). They sought God and kept the Feast of Tabernacles in the kingdom of heaven (Jas 8:18-22, 14:16-19).

The sacrifice of atonement (Num. 29:16, 19, etc.) is still offered at the Feast of Tabernacles in the kingdom of heaven: for those who are born in the kingdom of heaven are still sinful (Isa. 65:20). Those who are saved in the seven-year tribulation are different from us in that they enter the kingdom of heaven with their flesh, and they still bear and raise children. Because those who are born will still sin, the sacrifice of atonement will be offered.

4. Israel is the head of the nations (Deut. 28:13)

They were still to keep the Feast of Tabernacles in the Kingdom of Heaven (Jas 14:16), when they were truly restored!

5. The church is above Israel and the nations

(1) The kingdom of heaven must be revealed after the maturity of the church (Rom. 8:19, 21), and after the number of the saved has been increased (Rom. 11:25).

(2) The church is not a people in the kingdom of heaven.

The church is not a nation, nor is it the nation of Israel, but a holy kingdom (1 Pet. 2:9, Rev. 1:6). It is the nations that are the people. Revelation --- ...... Click here to read 5:10 "nation" in Traditional Chinese, some ancient scrolls say "kingdom".

(3) Christ "reigns as king" (Rev. 5:9-10).

The word "earth" is the earth, and "reign" is to rule.

(4) The highest is to reign (Rom. 8:17, 2 Tim. 2:12).

We cannot be kings, nor are we people. We are the representatives of God, so we must first learn to submit to authority.

There is great joy (Lev 23:40)

The Feast of Unleavened Bread was seven days, and they suffered seven days; the Feast of Tabernacles was also seven days, but they rejoiced seven days. They gathered their crops for the winter, and were blessed with great joy and counted the goodness of the Lord (Deut. 16:13-15).

7. The eighth day (Lev 23:36, 39)

The 8th day is not the Feast of Tabernacles, but there is an 8th day because of the Feast of Tabernacles.

(1) July 21.

It extends to the end of the year and is very long. This is the new heavens and the new earth, which is a foretaste of eternity. There are seven feast days in the first seven months, and they continue until the 8th day. After the 8th day there are no more feast days. The seventh feast is a foretaste of the kingdom of heaven at the end of time. After the kingdom of heaven, a new heaven and a new earth will be introduced.

(2) The sacrifices offered on the 8th day (Num. 29:35-38).

The sacrifice of atonement (v. 34) is a foreshadowing of the great white throne judgment.

(3) Eternal rest without toil (Lev 23:36, Num 29:35).


Conclusion

The 7 feasts of the Israelites were their ceremonial laws, and they were required to keep them every year. 3 of them were required to be kept in Jerusalem every year (Deut. 16:16): Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles.

We Christians are not saved by keeping the law, nor are we saved by keeping the law, but the greatest use of the law for us is "to convict us of sin" (Rom. 7:7). Also, the law and the special feasts are a foretaste of things to come, and they have valuable lessons for us.

1. We do not need to keep feast days, etc.

"I am afraid for you, that you keep the days, and the months, and the feasts, and the years; lest I have worked in vain in you." (Gal. 4:10-11) "Therefore do not let anyone judge you, whether in food or drink, or in the feasts, or in the lunar months, or in the Sabbaths. These were the shadow of things to come; but the form is Christ." (Col. 2:16-17)

There were those in Galatia who kept the law, and Paul said, "I am afraid for you." When the church in Colosse was judged by others for not keeping the days, months, feasts, years, etc., Paul said, "Let no one judge you." It turns out that "these are the shadows of things to come".

If we do not keep the feasts of the Old Testament, how much less the earthly feasts (such as the Spring Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival, etc.)?

2. The Seven Festivals and Their Lessons for Us

The seven feast days are divided into three categories, from the crucifixion of Jesus to the fulfillment of the kingdom of heaven.

(1) Past.

The Passover, which shows that Jesus was crucified for us.

The Feast of Unleavened Bread, which shows that Jesus is sinless and we should be free from sin.

The Feast of the Firstfruits, which shows that Jesus rose from the dead.

The first 3 feasts all fall in January, close together. It is about salvation and Jesus has been made perfect for us.

(2) Now.

The Holy Spirit came at Pentecost to establish the church, which is the age of grace for the church. This feast is in March, which is also close together.

(3) The future: The return of Christ until the realization of the kingdom of heaven.

The last three feasts fall within the month of July: July is the harvest period, which foreshadows the second coming of Christ. The second coming of Christ is also a long time from Pentecost, but the last three feasts are very close to each other, which means that Christ is coming again to raise the church into the air; Israel will be saved after the seven years of tribulation, and then the kingdom of heaven will be realized on earth after the judgment, and Christ will be the King of kings and Lord of lords. After the completion of the millennial kingdom, Jesus "gave the kingdom to God the Father" (1 Cor. 15:24), and a new heaven and a new earth began, which will last forever and ever (Rev. 21:-22:5)!

We should read the Old Testament to learn from it, and from the many prophecies that lead us to believe that the Bible is from God. We must not forget that the Old Testament has many prophecies, such as the "five sacrifices" and the "seven feasts", which are prophecies. Pre-tribulation is another aspect of prophecy, using people or things to indicate what will happen later. When we read the seven feasts, we will not only understand the situation of the Israelites when they kept the feasts, but also the situation from the crucifixion of Jesus until the millennial kingdom.

We should look back on the salvation of Christ in this age, on the one hand; on the other hand, we should watch well for Christ's return; and until Christ returns, we should pursue holiness and live unleavened lives until the Lord comes!


First drafted on July 3, 1988

Updated April 8, 2000


Author: Lin Xian Gao



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